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Fun ESL classroom games and activities for teaching English to children. Make your teaching easy and fun Schemes of work, lesson plans, primary teaching resources, differentiated worksheets and interactive PowerPoints to download, adapt and teach to help support the busy.
Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.
The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information.
If they are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered.
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Language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language.
Well- chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practise language skills.
Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts.
They also encourage and increase cooperation. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.
No 1, January - March 1. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games.
Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class. They are motivating and challenging.
Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading.
They encourage students to interact and communicate. They create a meaningful context for language use. Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time- filling activities but have a great educational value.
Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms 1. He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme.
A similar opinion is expressed by Richard- Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching.
There are many advantages of using games. Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" Richard- Amato 1. They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings Hansen 1.
They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson.
Furthermore, to quote Richard- Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas" 1.
In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better Wierus and Wierus 1.
Silvers says many teachers are enthusiastic about using games as "a teaching device," yet they often perceive games as mere time- fillers, "a break from the monotony of drilling" or frivolous activities.
He also claims that many teachers often overlook the fact that in a relaxed atmosphere, real learning takes place, and students use the language they have been exposed to and have practised earlier 1.
Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practising language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future 1.
Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems that at times seem overwhelming.
Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do" 1.
Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen.
All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency.
Games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily.
Second, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities.
However, in order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.
Why Use Games in Class Time? Through games children experiment, discover, and interact with their environment.
For many children between four and twelve years old, especially the youngest, language learning will not be the key motivational factor.
Games can provide this stimulus. It brings the target language to life. How to Choose Games Tyson, 2. A game must be more than just fun.
No 4, October - December 1. The justification for using games in the classroom has been well demonstrated as benefiting students in a variety of ways.
These benefits range from cognitive aspects of language learning to more co- operative group dynamics. Communicative language teaching - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Communicative language teaching CLT , or the communicative approach, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study.
BackgroundSocietal influencesCommunicative language teaching rose to prominence in the 1. Europe and the United States. First, there was an increased demand for language learning, particularly in Europe.
The advent of the European Common Market led to. European migration, and consequently there was a large population of people who needed to learn a foreign language for work or for personal reasons.
At the same time, children were increasingly able to learn foreign languages in school. The number of secondary schools offering languages rose worldwide in the 1.
In Britain, the introduction of comprehensive schools meant that almost all children had the opportunity to study foreign languages.
This increased demand put pressure on educators to change their teaching methods. Traditional methods such as grammar translation assumed that students were aiming for mastery of the target language, and that students were willing to study for years before expecting to use the language in real life.
However, these assumptions were challenged by adult learners who were busy with work, and by schoolchildren who were less academically able.
Educators realized that to motivate these students an approach with a more immediate payoff was necessary. The trend of progressivism in education provided further pressure for educators to change their methods.
Progressivism holds that active learning is more effective than passive learning, and as this idea gained traction in schools there was a general shift towards using techniques where students were more actively involved, such as group work.
Foreign- language education was no exception to this trend, and teachers sought to find new methods that could better embody this shift in thinking.
In the beginning time of language teaching, it was thought that language teaching is a cognitive matter. The idea then shifted from cognitive to socio- cognitive, which emphasizes that language can be learnt throughout the social process.
Academic influencesThe development of communicative language teaching was also helped by new academic ideas. In Britain, applied linguists began to doubt the efficacy of situational language teaching, the dominant method in that country at the time.
Chomsky had shown that the structural theories of language prevalent at the time could not explain the creativity and variety evident in real communication.
In addition, British applied linguists such as Christopher Candlin and Henry Widdowson began to see that a focus on structure was also not helping language students.
They saw a need for students to develop communicative skill and functional competence in addition to mastering language structures.
In the United States, the linguist and anthropologist Dell Hymes developed the concept of communicative competence. Hymes did not make a concrete formulation of communicative competence, but subsequent authors have tied the concept to language teaching, notably Michael Canale.
Communicative syllabiAn influential development in the history of communicative language teaching was the work of the Council of Europe in creating new language syllabi.
Education was a high priority for the Council of Europe, and they set out to provide syllabi that would meet the needs of European immigrants.
Among the studies used by the council when designing the course was one by the British linguist, D. Notional categories include concepts such as time, location, frequency, and quantity, and functional categories include communicative acts such as offers, complaints, denials, and requests.
These syllabi were widely used. Communicative language- learning materials were also developed in Germany. To meet this goal, educators developed materials that allowed learners to choose freely what they wanted to communicate.
These materials concentrated on the various different social meanings a given item of grammar could have, and were structured in such a way that learners could choose how to progress through the course themselves.
The materials were used in teacher training courses and workshops to encourage teachers to change to using a communicative syllabus.
Two similar projects were also undertaken by Candlin at Lancaster University, and by Holec at the University of Nancy. Meanwhile, at the University of Illinois, there was a study that investigated the effects of the explicit teaching of learning strategies to language learners.
The study encouraged learners to take risks while communicating, and to use constructs other than rote memorized patterns. This was the case even for beginners.
OutlineCLT is usually characterized as a broad approach to teaching, rather than as a teaching method with a clearly defined set of classroom practices.
As such, it is most often defined as a list of general principles or features. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.
The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the learning process itself.
An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom. These five features are claimed by practitioners of CLT to show that they are very interested in the needs and desires of their learners as well as the connection between the language as it is taught in their class and as it used outside the classroom.
Under this broad umbrella definition, any teaching practice that helps students develop their communicative competence in an authentic context is deemed an acceptable and beneficial form of instruction.
Thus, in the classroom CLT often takes the form of pair and group work requiring negotiation and cooperation between learners, fluency- based activities that encourage learners to develop their confidence, role- plays in which students practise and develop language functions, as well as judicious use of grammar- and pronunciation- focused activities.
In the mid 1. As such, the aim of the Dogme approach to language teaching is to focus on real conversations about real subjects so that communication is the engine of learning.
This communication may lead to explanation, and that in turn will lead to further communication. However, not all courses that utilize the Communicative Language approach will restrict their activities solely to these.
Some courses will have the students take occasional grammar quizzes, or prepare at home using non- communicative drills, for instance.
Unless students are given power, they may exert what little power they have to thwart learning and achievement through inappropriate behavior and mediocrity.
Thus, it is important for teachers to give students voice, especially in the current educational climate, which is dominated by standardization and testing Simmons and Page, 2.
More recently other writers e. Bax have critiqued CLT for paying insufficient attention to the context in which teaching and learning take place, though CLT has also been defended against this charge e.
This bright- eyed 7th grader and her quick- witted BFF, Maya, navigate the ups and downs of teenage life under the watchful eyes of her parents, Cory and Topanga.
In , in a declaration made as part of the court case Heller v. District of Columbia, which challenged D. President Barack Obama used a rare live address to reassure Americans that the San Bernardino shootings were an isolated incident and to outline his plans in the ongoing battle against ISIS.
The President firmly dismissed a change in strategy in the war against the extremists that would require combat troops on the ground in Iraq and Syria.
We have to remember that. He also called on Congress to pass legislation barring individuals on the no- fly list from purchasing guns.
That the violence is being pushed by radical elements in their faith? Radical elements who use a dangerous and distorted view of Islam to promote their jihadist ambitions.
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That to me is number one, wrong. He subsequently reposted another tweet by a supporter, adding: Sandy Hook School with an AR- 1. Much of the ensuing debate has focused on ways to regulate and potentially ban weapons like these.
So, how many auto- loading rifles actually exist in America? And in its 2. Modern sporting rifles are perhaps the fastest- growing segment of the domestic long gun industry.
Get more specific, Peters! However, author William J. Take the AR- 1. NICS background checks increased by 5. If the number of AR- 1.
These data only include firearms manufactured in the United States. In his declaration, Overstreet notes that, since 1. Overstreet derived his numbers by examining the sales figures of companies that only produced AR- 1.
Remington is now a wholly owned subsidiary of the Freedom Group. Sturm- Ruger produced 1,1. According to Overstreet, AR- 1. If that statistic remains true, then Sturm- Ruger produced close to 4.
Again, I must caution that there is a potentially huge margin of error in these calculations. Add everything together, make all the necessary caveats, carry the two, and we reach the conclusion that there are somewhere around 3,7.
If there are around 3. USA today, that means these auto- loading assault- style rifles make up around 1 percent of the total arsenal. And keep in mind, the AR- 1.
Overstreet estimated that more than 8. There are other types, too. This is only the tip of the gunberg.
No matter the exact figures, there are a whole hell of a lot of assault weapons in America, which complicates any talk of gun control. The most effective way for the government to reduce the existing gun stock would be to buy them back from their owners.
When Australia imposed strict gun control measures in 1. Aussie government bought back 6. Would such a plan fly in America?
We might soon see what voters and politicians hate more: Read more on Slate about gun control. This post originally and incorrectly referred to the AR- 1.
Neben dem 1,4 GHz schnellen Prozessorteil. That said, the One X has a much higher resolution screen 7. The first half of next year should get very interesting for mobile devices.
Qualcomm Snapdragon vs. Both Qualcomm and Nvidia have taken the mobile chipsets to all new level. The processing power of these chips is.
It features four fast clocked. Tegra 3 won simply because it was able to display a greater number of frames per second higher scores are better. Judging GPU performance has a lot to do with how quickly the pixels are refreshed, and fewer pixels makes it easier on the processor.
The One X, for example, has 7. One S, which puts its GPU at a disadvantage. Tegra 3 and Snapdragon S4: GHz and give you all you need.
MHz each for more efficient battery life. Semiconductor physics dictate that the power consumption of a core is proportional to the frequency and the square of the operating voltage.
Due to this square law relationship, even a small reduction in voltage would result in a larger reduction in power consumption.
First, a brief explanation of what each of these benchmarks does. We chose this test because it allows us to see how two cores compete against four cores.
In addition, it shows how 2. EMark is especially important because it was built by the Embedded Microprocessor Benchmark Consortium. EMark is capable of testing multicore and multithreading capabilities of a given processor and can also test the Java efficiency of the CPU.
It posted higher scores for every test, although the benchmarks for Smart. In this test, Tegra 3 came on top. D graphics for a much higher resolution display than what the S4 had to power.
D tests, even though the One S has a lower resolution display. This allows us to test the S4 versus the Tegra 3 without taking the physical. It would be pretty much impossible to distinguish a game playing at 6.
Moonbat allows users to test the multithreaded CPU performance inside of the Chrome web browser using a series of Java- based tests. In this case, the lower score is better because it means the benchmark finished faster.
The Snapdragon S4 won, completing the tests roughly 3. That means that Tegra 3 will offload one thread to each core while the S4 chip will run two threads on each of its cores.
However, the S4 only has two cores and so we originally ran the first test to reflect that. D world, which means the game looks better overall.
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